Latest update 13.08.2019 Category: Economics

The Role Of The National State In European Economic Development : A Comparison Of Germany And Russia, 1815-1914. essay

Department of Economics Completely on essaydocs.org

Theodore H. von Laue, ‘The High Cost and the Gamble of the Witte System: a Chapter in the Industrialization of Russia’, The Journal of Economic History, 13:4 (Autumn 1953), 425-48.

Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789–1914 Completely on britannica.com

Europe during this 125-year span was both united and deeply divided. A number of basic cultural trends, including new literary styles and the spread of science, ran through the entire continent. European states were increasingly locked in diplomatic interaction, culminating in continentwide alliance systems after 1871. At the same time, this was a century of growing nationalism, in which individual states jealously protected their identities and indeed established more rigorous border controls than ever before. Finally, the European continent was to an extent divided between two zones of differential development. Changes such as the Industrial Revolution and political liberalization spread first and fastest in western Europe—Britain, France, the Low Countries, Scandinavia, and, to an extent, Germany and Italy. Eastern and southern Europe, more rural at the outset of the period, changed more slowly and in somewhat different ways.

Department of Economics Completely on essaydocs.org

Theodore H. von Laue, ‘The High Cost and the Gamble of the Witte System: a Chapter in the Industrialization of Russia’, The Journal of Economic History, 13:4 (Autumn 1953), 425-48.

The role of human capital and innovation in economic development: evidence from post-Malthusian Prussia Completely on link.springer.com

The effect of human capital on growth involves multiple channels. On the one hand, an increase in human capital directly affects economic growth by enhancing labor productivity in production. On the other hand, human capital is an important input into R&D and therefore increases labor productivity indirectly by accelerating technological change. In addition, different types of human capital such as basic and higher education or training-on-the-job might play different roles in both production and innovation activities. We merge individual data on valuable patents granted in Prussia in the late nineteenth-century with county-level data on literacy, craftsmanship, secondary schooling, and income tax revenues to explore the complex relationship between various types of human capital, innovation, and income. We find that the Second Industrial Revolution can be seen as a transition period when it comes to the role of human capital. As in the preceding First Industrial Revolution, “useful knowledge” embodied in master craftsmen was related to innovation, especially of independent inventors. As in the subsequent twentieth century, the quality of basic education was associated with both workers’ productivity and firms’ R&D processes. In a final step, we show that literacy had also a negative effect on fertility which increased with innovation. In general, our findings support the notion that the accumulation of basic human capital was crucial for the transition to modern economic growth.

Economic Development: a Comparison of Rostow and Gerschenkron Completely on termpaperwarehouse.com

...1Developed Economy Developed economy is an economy enjoying sustained economic growth and security. Some of the common characteristics of a developed economy are low birth rate and higher life expectancy, high level of literacy and a well trained workforce and the export of high value added goods. High gross domestic product is also a common measure of a developed economy. (Business dictionary 2011) However a developed economy is an economy that has a high level of economic development in a classified state, according to some criteria. Countries classified We could also argue that in times of low unemployment, workers have more power to demand higher wages because they know they cannot be easily replaced. Conversely, during high unemployment businesses have more bargaining power because both they and their workers are aware of the competition and that replacing workers is easier. Also the need to lower spending on welfare where more people working means fewer people claiming welfare. With lower welfare spending, governments can put more money into new schools or hospitals. Increased spending on health care and policing, which suggests that areas with high unemployment rates tend to have higher crime rates, too, coupled with the local population's poor health. The social and psychological effect of low unemployment rate cannot be totally ignored; high unemployment has been linked to psychological and physical disorders, divorce, suicide and crime.......