Latest update 28.08.2019 Category: Education

Comparing Two Adult Education Formats: Direct Instruction and Cooperative Learning Methods. essay

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Cooperative learning should be considered the natural progression of the American education system. Traditional education techniques place students in a competitive atmosphere. Cooperative learning requires students to work together to achieve success. A democratic method for a democratic society. Cooperative learning does not allow for a single winner, instead through group efforts, each student’s strengths help the collective achieve success. This paper will address the history of cooperative learning

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English language learner cooperative learning is especially effective when students of differing abilities work together in groups. Students learn to depend on each other to complete a task on not just on one strong leader who is advanced in level. Students are individually responsible for their tasks, and they work together to create a finished product in the group by contributing their pieces. Cooperative learning and English language learners go well together; students learn to be confident in their abilities to use English to contribute to a larger group as well as to communicate on a person-to-person basis.

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While at Lehigh University at the beginning of the 20th century, Herman Schneider (1872–1939), engineer, architect, and educator, concluded that the traditional learning space or classroom was insufficient for technical students (Smollins 1999). Schneider observed that several of the more successful Lehigh graduates had worked to earn money before graduation. Gathering data through interviews of employers and graduates, he devised the framework for cooperative education (1901). About that time, Carnegie Technical Schools, now Carnegie Mellon University, opened and thereby minimized the need for Schneider's co-op plan in the region around Lehigh University. However, in 1903 the University of Cincinnati appointed Schneider to their faculty. In 1905 the UC Board of Trustees allowed Schneider to "try this cooperative idea of education for one year only, for the failure of which they would not be held responsible". The cooperative education program was launched in 1906, and became an immediate success. The University of Cincinnati returned to the matter in its September 2005 board meeting, declaring the 100-year trial period of one hundred years of Cooperative Education officially ended, for the success of which the Board resumed full responsibility.

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Cooperative learning is a successful approach in which small teams, each with students of diverse levels of capability, use a range of learning activities to advance their understanding of a topic (Noyes, 2010). Each member of the team is accountable not only for learning what is taught, but also for helping teammates learn through the formation of an environment of accomplishment (Kagan, 2002). Cooperative efforts result in members motivated for mutual achievement so that all gain from each other’s efforts, recognize that all members share a common fate, know that one’s performance is caused by each other working together and feel proud and jointly celebrate when one is recognized for success. Cooperative learning is not just group work or a way to keep students busy. Teachers must provide key instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension and allow the dynamics of cooperative learning to provide practice for proficiency.